AVADHOOTHA, SADAANANDA, PARABRAHMA, SWAROOPINE||
VIDEHA DEHA, ROOPAAYA, DATTATREYA, NAMOSTHUTHE||
Story about Birth of Lord Dattatreya
As per Datta Puran written by Maharishi Veda Vyas, Datta is one of the incarnations of Lord Vishnu. There are so many Incarnations of Vishnu like Mohini Avatar, Datta Avatar which are not as popular as the Dasa(10) avatars. Lord Datta is an embodiment of Gnana(knowledge). Here Gnana does not merely mean simple knowledge or common sense. Here it means Brahma Gnana or knowledge about the ultimate truth or of Parabrahman. Datta avatar’s main purpose of being on earth is to impart Brahma Gnana to everyone who seek to obtain it. The name Dattatreya symbolises the idea of unity in diversity, connects the people of different creeds and synthesises various differences found in the society. Dattatreya is described as an ocean of knowledge and bestower of joy. Sandilyopanishad gives Maheshwara and Dattatreya as synonyms of Brahman, and is the Adhidevatha the principal and supreme deity of Yoga as Yoganath, and of Gnaana as Gnaana pradhaatha and Guruparampara as Jagatguru. Just reciting Datta’s name is sufficient to sanctify and enlighten minds and purify hearts. Datta is the Lord of Love, compassion and mercy. It is most uncertain that those who sing Datta’s name, meditate upon him and worship him will be blessed with both Bhakthi in abundance and Mukthi in the end. DATTA means God given to the world inhuman form.
According to Datta Puran , Atri maharshi Is one of the seven sons of Lord Brahma and born of pure will. Anasuya is the daughter of Maharshi Kardama. Both of them were Highly knowledgeble in spirituality and were profound devotees of God. Atri Maharishi did a great penance for Parabrahman on the mountain called Rushika and impressed by his long penance Trinity appeared before him and said that they gave themselves to him. After that Atri and Anasuya ma were blessed with three sons. Chandra was born with power of Brahma, Durvasa with the power of Shiva and Datta with power of Vishnu. Chandra and Durvasa left their amsa(powers) to Datta and left for their respective places. Lord Datta remains on this earth since then for the sake of devotees.
LEGEND 2 :
Once Godess Parvathi, Laxmi and Saraswathy wanted to test the loyalty of Anasuya mata towards her husband and sent Trinity to Earth to test her.
Soon Trinity stood in front of Atri’s hermitage seeking alms. At that time Atri was not at home so Anasuya took them inside and made them comfortable. When she was getting ready to serve food, they stopped her saying that they cannot accept the food until she serves them in nudity. Surprised and shocked to know their demand Anasuya mata was in great dilemma whether to give them food or not. But she believed in the words” ATHITHI DEVO BHAV” which meant guest is equal to God.
Immediately she remembered the Lotus feet of her husband and sprinkled water on the three guests and turned them into infants. She then fed them and made them fall asleep. Meanwhile Atri returned home after his regular rituals and knew the facts from his wife and understood that they were none other than Brahma, Vishnu & Maheshwara.
Knowing about their husbands, Godess Laxmi, Vani & Parvati came to Atri’s hermitage and asked to give their husbands to them. Then on prayers of Atri & Anasuya Trinity took their original forms and blessed them with three sons who bear the power of Trinity.
In both the above legends it is told that Lord Datta is an incarnation of Vishnu.
Why only Atri Maharishi & Anasuya mata ?
Atri means one who is beyond the three attributes of satva, raja and thamas. These three attributes cause birth and death and condition a soul. One who is above the trinity of attributes, can be the real devotee of the almighty. Then Lord offers his own self to such a devotee. Anasuya is one who is not having the quality of Asuya. The characteristic of complaint. It is said that eersha & asuya are twin siblings. Feeling jealous of someone is eersha and because of that hating them and complaining about them is asuya. So Mata is above all these silly emotions.
Datta Nama importance……Lord Datta was not given his name by his parents. He was born with that name. Datta means gift which Rishi Atri received as a result of his unconditional prayers. As he was born to Atri he was called Aatreya(son of Atri). So finally he became Dattatreya. According Srimad Bhagavatham the birth of Lord Datta was said as
Atre rapathya mabhikaankshathaaha thushtha: Datto mayahamithi yath bhagawan sadattha:
Yath paada pankaja paraaga pavitra dehaa: Yogiddimaa purubhayeem yadu hayi hayaadhyaa:
which means “I GIVE MYSELF TO YOU”
Lord Dattatreya commonly known as Guru dattatreya, has fascinated the hearts of Millions of devotees by his highly gracious nature and pleasing personality throught the centuries. He is renowned as ” SMRUTHI MAATRANUGRAHA KARTHA ” –bestowing favour as soon AS he is remembered. He has been rightly called as ‘SMARTHRUGAAMI’ – presenting himself as soon as he is recollected.
Gnana roopa Datta
Lord Datta came into a physical form to spread Gnana. But he does not give it to everyone. He first tests the seeker, his intensity and eligibility and then he gives it. Guru’s grace is a very potent and vital necessity in spiritual sadhana for a Sadhak to progress and march on safely. Spiritual sadhana is a very subtle, intricate and complex process. Shastraas can indicate the path removing your doubts and give guidance up to certain extent only. So, not only the guidance of Guru is essential but his grace is also most essential in Spiritual sadhana. The Guru can impart certain spiritual vibrations and some Shakthi to his disciple even by a touch, by a look, by a thought or by a word. Lord Dattatreya, the teacher of teachers, had been Guru to Brahma, Parashurama, Prahlada, Kings Yadu, Alarka, Kartaveeryaarjuna and carved out a stupendously marvelous Guru sampradaaya and Guru parampara throughout all the ages.
SRI GUROHO PARATHARAM NAASTHI NASSTHI TATHWAH PARAM GURUM ||
THERE IS NOTHING THAT TRANSCENDS THE GURU, THERE NO PHILOSOPHY IN LIFE OTHER THAN THE GURU. The ‘ga’ sound in the name of the guru gives siddhi (ultimate victory over the self) and the ‘ra’ sound annihilates all sins. The ‘u’ sound depicts the unmanifested from of Vishnu (avyaktha swaroopa).
As Lord Dattatreya is a combination of Guru and God, we are calling him as ‘JAI GURU DEVA DATTA’. The two letters DA and TTA are more powerful and one can attain BRAHMA GNAANA by reciting the name of LORD DATTATREYA. One can observe the same in the words of Mahadeva told to SHRI Shuka Maharshi as
DATTA DATTA IDAM VAAKYAM, THAARAKAM SARVA DEHINAAAM,
SHRADHAA YUKTHO JAPE NITYAM, DATTA ITYAKSHARA DWAYAM.
DATTATREYAA THAVA SHARANAM|| DATTA NAADHA THAVA SHARANAM||
A Guru is praised as Guru Brahma , Guru Vishnu, Guru Devo Maheshwara, Guru Saakshath Parabrahma. Which means after a child attains a suitable age he is put to Gurukul where his Guru gives him a Deeksha so he becomes Guru Brahma. Then Guru takes care of his disciples progress and well being and becomes Guru Vishnu and finally when the disciple turns into a Siddha Purusha (elevated soul) he attains salvation and his Guru becomes Maheswara. Dattaguru is the perfect example of the above lines. So in Datta cult Guru is given utmost priority and his lotus feet are worshipped. “Dattam Chhinnam” is said which means “Datta cuts”. The Upanishads are clearly telling that, “DATTA VEEJASTHAM JAGATH SARVAM” ...means total Universe is Datta swaroopa. Dattatreya is Trimoorthi swaroopa, so every Datta sadhaka can see the Unity in Diversity and can see the PARABRAHMA TATVA. .Generally, God’s nature (DAIVATVA) can appear in any Upasana. But in this Datta sampradaya, one can see the GURU and GOD’s nature (Gurutva and Daivatva). So, this is the main reason to perform ‘PAADUKAARCHANA’ ( archana to lotus feet / sandals of Guru) in Datta sampradaya. We can see this Paadukaarchana in SHaaktheyam and in Datta sampradayam only. Generally, God gives only what is asked by his disciples/servants/ devotees. He won’t judge about the results of such askings. He will grant that boons irrespective of the such results.But Guru always gives what is needed by his disciples/servants/devotees. So, he will always sanction the boons of what is needed by his servants at proper times. Hence Gurutatwa is more powerful than Bhagavat tatwa. But one has to surrender at the lotus feet of his Guru. Dattatreya tatwa is AVYAKTHA, NIRGUNA, NIRAAKAARA, NIRANJANA, NISHKRIYA, PARABRAHMA, SAGUNA SWAROOPA and it is SHREEMANNARAAYANA, PARAMESHA TATWA.
Significane and Benefits of praying one’s GURU:
(a) Reduction in Ego: Often seekers forget to thank God when their prayers are answered or after deriving Bliss from rendering service. By paying gratitude to God for all the things in our lives we acknowledge the Lord’s help. This in a way helps to also reduce our ego, so that we rely less on our capabilities and more on our faith in God to give us the capability. Gratitude is a means of offering the doer-ship of an act to God / the Guru, hence it helps in reducing the ego.
(b)Increasing Spiritual emotion: When we have spiritual emotion which means having an intense awareness of God in our lives we constantly experience the Guru’s grace. One of the most essential attributes of spiritual emotion is our ability to pay gratitude for all that the Lord has given us. Guidance: For a seeker the all-wise and all-knowing Guru skillfully guides the spiritual progress of the seeker, which if left up to seeker alone, would have taken many lifetimes. For this, the seeker is eternally indebted to the Guru. The unseen aspect – is also known as ‘The Guru Principle’. The Guru is the Teaching Principle of God. This is the aspect of God that performs the function of guiding us to grow spiritually.
Appearance of Lord Dattatreya
Maalaakamandalu dharah karapadmayugme
Madhyastha paaniyugale damarutrishoolam;
Adhyastha urdhva karayoh shubha shankhachakre
Vande tamatrivaradam bhujashatkayuktam.
MEANING: I meditate on Lord Dattatreya, the son of Atri, who has six hands, who holds the rosary and water-vessel in two hands, with damaru and spear in the other two hands, and with conch and discus in the upper two hands. Lord Dattatreya is having the face like a fully bloomed lotus-flower and bears the lotus-like heart melted with pity, he is possessed of the mass of matted hair yellow-red like lightning and has eyes in the form of moon, the Sun and the fire. He bears divine saffron (kaashaya) coloured garments and possess six arms. He removes infatuation created by ignorance by the rays of the moon in the form of nails of his feet. I bow down to Dattatreya, the preceptor of the world, who is propitious, perfect, supreme, eternal, pure, free from blemishes (i.e., unstained) and the highest divine resort who is absorbed in playing with the cow and the dogs.
kalidas, the top most sanskrit writer says
namaha trimoortaye thubhyam praak srushte kevalaatmane||
gunatraya vibhaagaya paschaad bhedamupeyushe|| ”
i bow to the oh trinity, who was alone before the creation of the universe and who turned into different shapes in order to have division according to the three attributes”. the following verse describes his appearance:
vaamapado dhrutha seshe|
dattatreya dwibaahustaathu vaamothsange shriyasaha||
the left foot is placed on the shesha cobra, the right one is on the back of tortoise. Dattatreya has two hands with laxmi on the left side . Here dattatreya is described as the almighty Vishnu.
Dattaguru is having three heads as he is Trinity rolled in one form. This can be understood by a layman. But for those who seek salvation there is an underlying meaning. In Tripura Rahasya taught by Dattatreya to Parasurama, he said that the entire universe is three folded and only one Parabrahman is keeping it alive.
Loke Tri Tri Kramollasai: Vasthu poorva sthithi yada:
Tripurethi thatha: proktha: Brahmadeenam parasayaa:
Which means the entire world is three folded like
- Jagruth , swapna , sushupthi
- Srushti , sthithi , laya
- Brahma , Vishnu , maheshwara
- Vani , laxmi , parvathi
- Satva , rajas , tamo
- Bhoo: , bhuva: , suva:
- Bhootha ,varthaman , bhavishya
- Ida , pingala ,sushumna
- Sthoola , sookshma ,kaarana
- Gargyapathya , aavahaneeya , dakshina agnis
- Soorya , Chandra ,agni
- Aa , I , u in om
So in this 3D world the one & only driving force which is leading is Paramatman or Parabrahman which is symbolically depicted by Lord Datta’s appearance with one body and 3 faces. Lord Datta has six hands. Whenever we want to show our power we show our hands. So Dattaguru is the most powerful. He holds Shankhu , Chakra , Trishool ,Dhamaru Rosary and a water pot in his hands which are the weapons of Trinity. But there is a second meaning which is..
the entire universe has five main elements called pancha bhoota . They are agni (fire), vayu(air) , jala(water) , bhoomi (earth) & aakash(sky).
So the five elements of the universe are in the control of Lord Dattatreya. The cow indicates the Dharma and four dogs serving him are four Vedas.
Sadguru Dattatreya has attained the highest stage of yogis I.e., parama avadhotha. He is considered the embodiment of knowledge, Compassion, soft-heartedness, truth, sincertiy and faith etc.,Therefore all his acgions are meant for the prosperity and well-being Of humanity. Being he supreme Guru in the Universe, he showers Blessings on all sadhaks, whatever their religion or sect. Sadguru Dattatreya is said to have descended on this earth in the beginning Of this kalpa.
Meaning of “DA”
The initial letter in Datatreya is “DA” and as it is a trinity rolled into one, we get three `da’s. The first da represents “DAMAN” or control. The second one means “DAN” or giving offering. The third “DA” stands for “DAYA” compassion. Man is a bundle of propensities.
The three attributes are indicated in the gods, the human beings and the demons. It may be noted that every human being is a multiple-being and the three attributes are blended in him.. Man is at times divine, very human in give and take, while at another moment, very selfish like a demon. How can a nice benevolent personality develop? For this, the divine self should follow “dama” (control) . The human self should resort to “DANA” (giving) and the lower spirit in man must have “DAYA” or compassion to others. This aspect was put in an interesting episode in Brihadaaranyaka in an allegory.
Gods, men and demons were receiving education under their common Father Prajaapathi Brahma. They observed celebacy and served the preacher-father. After some time, the Gods went to Prajapathi and said, “O sage, preach us suitably”. Prajapathi only uttered `DA’. The Gods were pleased and started going. So Prajapathi said, “did you get the meaning of the letter given to you?”. Gods said, “yes sir, you want us to control our senses and so `da’ means `daman’. Gods live in heavenly abodes, enjoy all comforts and hence they must control their senses for rising higher. Prajapathi okayed their interpretation and asked them to follow it.
Next human beings went and said “Please preach us”. Prajaapathi said, `da’. When men were moving out, Prajapathi wanted to know if they had grasped the meaning, so he said, “You are going. Do you know the meaning of the word given?”. “Yes sir, you want us to give gifts and offerings. You mean `dan’ by `da’. Prajaapathi said “Right, but mere knowledge is useless, you have to behave and do what’s expected”.
When men had left, the demons went to Prajaapathi and bowed to him saying, “Give us your message”. Prajaapathi said `da’ and asked them:”do you follow what I say?”. The demons said sure sir, you want us to have pity on others and avoid violence. Your advice is to be compassionate to every being. Prajaapathi said, you have rightly grasped the sense. Now, forget difference between you and others. Behave equally with everyone. That will make you happy!
Thus the three qualities of control, charity and compassion are essential requisites for making the life sublime. Those with abundance of worldly pleasures should restrain from too much enjoyment. In order to be happy as a social being, men should be happy by giving things to others and sharing with the others.
The Dattaguru’s special charachterstics are
1.Dattatreya is a great healer of ailments, both physical and spiritual. 2.Dattaguru’s work is primarliy to transform and salvage by guiding: he does not kill the impious. Datta is primarly a teacher god (Guru).He was born in the sattva sphere, there is no room here for tragedy. Everything is austere beauty, love and serenity. 3. Datta is an Avadhutha.As such, Datta is unbounded by vedic injunctions. The Avadhootha is above all these. 4. The passing or termination of other avatharas has been mentioned by the PUranas, not so of Dattaguru. 5. Datta grants a vision of himself in such diverse forms as a shepherd, a sanyasin, a Yathi, a Brahmin, or a Faqir. He comes in dreams to fulfil the desires of his devotees. Whatever the form, it rounds off with a vision of a six-handed figure and the face is heavenly bright. 6. Datta’s padukas are worshiped. He loves the oudumbar tree and has Kamadhenu and dogs with him. 7. He taught aatma-vidya and the path of yoga. 8. His behaviour was like the non-intoxicated behaving like the intoxicated.
Dattatreya is said to be ATHYASRAMA VASI which means he is above 4 ashrams namely Brahmacharya , Grihastha , Vanaprastha & Sanyasa. He need not follow any of the principles but to show the right path to his desciples he followed all the rituals in his two incarnations. He is seen incaves , jungles under Audumber tree as a digamber.
Lord Dattatreya and Lord Rama are two forms of same energy.
In Valmiki Ramayana , in Aranya kanda it is written that after Bharatha (younger brother of Lord Rama) takes the holy padukas of Rama to Ayodhya , Laxmana , seetha & rama went to hermitage of Atri Maharishi and Anasuya mata. Then Atri says to Rama “SEYAM MATHEVATHE ANAGHA” which means O ANAGHA! (anagha means one who is not touched by sin. Dattaguru is also called as Anagha Swamy) she is like your mother. While saying this Atri looked at Rama as PUTRAVATH PRATHIVADYATHA meaning as if Rama were his son. Datta had been son of Atri in KRUTHA YUGA and Rama is born as son of Dasharatha in Treta Yuga. So Atri used the words “LIKE YOUR MOTHER” while referring to Anasuya Mata. In his earlier Avatara Rama was Datta himself and that is why Lord Rama also wandered in Jungles like Datta wearing normal clothes like Avadhootha.
DATTA YOGA TATVA
The Lord of all living beings, four-armed Lord Vishnu appeared in the form of Lord Dattatreya, the Lord of Yoga. His disciple, sage Sankriti, was immensely devoted to him. One day, when alone, he (Sankriti) asked his guru in a polite way, “Oh Lord! Describe to me the Yoga of eight limbs (Ashtang Yoga) so that I may be liberated from bondage in this life”.
Lord Dattatreya told his disciple: “Oh Sankriti! I will describe to you the Yoga of eight limbs. Listen carefully. Yam, Niyam, Asan, Pranayaam, Pratyahar, Dharana, Dhyaan and Samadhi are the eight limbs of Yoga.
There are ten kinds of Yam: non-violence, truth, non-stealing, celibacy, kindness, forgiveness, fortitude, simplicity, proper food and cleanliness. To give pain by thought, word or deed to anyone is violence. The spirit is imperishable and cannot be grasped by the senses or intellect. Having this attitude towards the spirit has also been considered to be non-violence by those who are well versed in Vedanta.
Truth is to convey something through words or gestures in the same form in which it is seen, heard, smelt or understood by the senses of seeing, hearing etc. Apart from that, there is no other form of truth. According to those who are well versed in Vedas and Vedanta, only the Supreme Brahma is the ultimate truth. Non-stealing is not to desire any ornament, jewel, gold, diamond, pearl or even a straw belonging to others. Never to have temptation or greed for anything big or small belonging to others is also known as non-stealing. In all dealings in this world, the attitude should be to keep the mind away from attachment and, according to wise people, that attitude is also non-stealing.
To consider all living beings, on par with oneself is called kindness.. Attitude of equanimity towards the son, friend, wife, enemy and oneself is simplicity. Not to have the slightest effect from pain given by the thought, words or deed of an enemy is forgiveness. Only the knowledge of the Vedas leads to liberation from the cycle of birth and death. According to the wise people, such determination is called fortitude. The intellect that never deviates from the faith ‘I am not separate from the cosmic spirit’ is also fortitude. To take pure and nourishing food in a limited quantity and fill half of the stomach by food, one fourth by water and leave one fourth for air is considered proper food according to Yoga.
The external body is cleaned by clay (soap) and water. Internal cleaning is done through pure thoughts in the mind. A person who is CONSCIOUS ABOUT the external cleanliness forgetting the internal purity is like a fool who collects the stones discarding the pieces of gold. It is mentioned in the Markandeya purana that he taught the asthanga yoga to Patanjali, who then wrote the yoga sutras. He is also attributed to the composition of the jivanmukta -gita which is a short compendium of 23 verses which talks about the gnani (jivan mukta). Dattatreya is also attributed with avadhuta gita, a text of eight chapters. ‘ Dattatreya is the narrator of the Gnana Kanda of tripura rahasya to Parasurama to dispel the latter’s doubts on liberation. (The story of Samvrata found in tripura rahasya has been cited by shankara in his brahma suutra bhashya). Further, Dattatreya is attributed with a couple of Tantric works. Dattatreya is also mentioned in the Mahabharata. Certian vaishnavites hold him in high esteem since he is mentioned as a incarnation of vishnu. As Dattaguru is HariHariBrahma rupa, he explained the importance of “ANANTHA PADMA NAABHA VRATHA” in the form of Sri Nrusimha saraswathy swamy as the second incarnation of Lord Dattatreya. One can refer Shree Gurucharitra for reference. As he is trimoorhti swaroopa, Shiva bhaktas also follows the Datta sampradaya.The incarnation of Lord Dattatreya Shri Nrusimha Saraswathy Swami explained the “SMAARTHA” sampradaaya traditions like Rudraabhisheka, Bhasmadhaarana vidhi, the importance of Rudraaksha, The power of Somavaara vratha etc.,One can refer Shree Gurucharitra for reference.